South Africa increases R&D spend

first_imgMost South African R&D work were performed in the research field of the engineering sciences (20.9% of total R&D), followed by the natural sciences (20.3%) and the medical and health sciences (15.1%). Meanwhile, the demographic profile of researchers in South Africa is changing, with women researchers now comprise 39.7% of the total researchers, compared to 12.4% in Japan, and 31.7% in Norway. Among the developing countries, Argentina leads the way with 50.5 percent women researchers. Ten-year innovation plan The information is critical to South Africa’s forward planning, particularly in specifying the targets for the Ten-Year Innovation Plan, which aims to help drive South Africa’s transformation towards a knowledge-based economy in which the production and dissemination of knowledge leads to economic benefits. The higher education sector undertakes 20% of national R&D activity, while the government (including the science councils) performs 22.8% of the total but finances 33.9% of R&D. “It is important to have a strong basic research component in a country’s national system of innovation in order to challenge and train new researchers,” Mjwara said in a statement. Source: BuaNews South Africa currently has a total of 30 986 full-time equivalent R&D personnel, comprising researchers, technicians and other support staff. Wide research fields According to the survey, the strengthening of the R&D system through national policies and mechanisms including special support for cooperation across what is termed the “triple helix” of business, government and higher education sectors can only lead to a more competitive international position through R&D based innovation. “Applied research and experimental development contribute to economic development by providing new R&D based products and processes with potential for introduction to the market.” Mjwara said that the local business sector was the major performer and financer of R&D activity in the country, performing 55.9% of all work undertaken and financing 51.3% of total R&D. A new survey by the Human Sciences Research Council finds that South Africa spent at least R16.5-billion on research and development (R&D) over the 2006/07 financial year, an indication that the country is progressing towards being a knowledge-based economy. About 10.6% of South Africa’s R&D activity is financed from abroad. Altogether about 18.6% of total R&D performed in the country comprised basic research representing an expenditure of about 0.18% of GDP. 18 September 2008 Speaking in Pretoria this week, Department of Science and Technology director-general Phil Mjwara said the growth in spending puts the country on course to meet its goal of spending 1% of gross domestic product (GDP) on research and development by the 2008/9 financial year. The purpose of the survey, conducted by the HSRC’s Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators, found that R&D expenditure had increased from R14.1-billion in 2005/06.last_img read more

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Video Tutorial: How to Create Karaoke Graphics in After Effects

first_imgStep 1 — Add the TextFirst, I’ll add a text layer using the Text tool. This project is going to be quite simple, and it will only consist of the song I’m using and the text layers. To view the waveforms of my song, I’ll select the layer and use the keyboard shortcut LL. When I can see the waveform, I’ll listen to the track and add markers to the comp. I want the markers to roughly surround each verse where I want to add a single line of text. This will serve as a visual reference when keyframing. Step 2 — Add the Color PropertyThe secret to making this effect work is using Animators. To add one, I’ll click on the Animate drop-down menu just to the right of the Text menu of my layer. As you’ll notice in the menu, there are a number of attributes for which I can add animators, but I want to focus on the color of the text. For a color animator, I’ll select Fill Color > RGB and then change the color to whatever I like. Now my text is ready for animation.Step 3 — AnimateText animators come with a Range Selector, allowing me to select a specific range to apply to my color effect. Range Selectors have Start, End, and Offset attributes, giving you precise control over the text animation. To create a simple right-to-left color wipe effect, I’ll animate the End attribute of the Range Selector from 0 to 100, lining up the keyframes to the markers surrounding the verse. Once I have my beginning and end keyframes in place, I’ll go through and fine-tune the Range Selector’s location. To better match the wipe effect to each word, I can put my playhead over a specific area of the timeline and then manually drag the Range Selector in the Comp panel. This will add a new keyframe to my End property. Once I’m happy with the timing of the End property, I’ll grab all of the keyframes and apply Easy Ease via the F9 key. Step 4 — CustomizeI can further customize the look of the color wipe via the Range Selector’s Advanced submenu. The animation defaults to animating each text character on screen one at a time, which might not be the look I want. I can switch this to exclude the spaces between characters, or I can have each word animate on (instead of individual characters). I like the way the words look, so I’ll change this and then retime any keyframes to make sure that the animation still looks good.And there you have it. Time to party!Cover image via Fer Gregory.Interested in the tracks we used to create this video?“Lovely Travel” by Make Music“Fly Free” by HartleyLooking for more After Effects tutorials? Check these out.Video Tutorial: Create a Callout Graphic in Adobe After EffectsVideo Tutorial: How to Create Anime Speed Lines in After EffectsVideo Tutorial: How to Fine-Tune Keyframes in Adobe After EffectsVideo Tutorial: How to Morph Graphics Using Adobe After EffectsHow to Create an Animated Circle Burst in Adobe After Effects Need some Karaoke graphics? No problem. Learn how to customize your text and animation (and save yourself some time) in this video tutorial.Whether you just want to boogie down and sing with your friends or you’re working on a creative motion graphics project, this technique can speed things up for you. The problem is that creating text graphics like this can be extremely tedious and labor-intensive. The beauty of this technique is that not only is it fast, it’s also versatile and customizable. Let’s take a step-by-step look at how to create these karaoke-style text elements.last_img read more

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